Find the matrix for the linear transformation acting on the vector space of polynomials of degree or less in the ordered basis .
We plug the basis vectors in into and evaluate using calculus. We then write them as column vectors with regards to . We then stack them side-by-side into a matrix.
So the matrix is
Use your matrix from (a) to rewrite the differential equation ( is a vector in )
as a matrix equation. Find all solutions of the matrix equation, then write them as elements of .
Using our answer to (a), the equation becomes the matrix equation with unknown vector ;
Using Gaussian elimination we get that
As there is no pivot in the third column of the matrix, the coefficient on is free. The pivots in columns two and one respectively say that the coefficient on is and the coefficient on is . So,
Where can be any real number.
This is the same as the antiderivative , as you might have expected.
Find the matrix for the linear transformation acting on the same vector space but now with the ordered basis .
We plug the basis vectors in into and evaluate using calculus. We then write them as column vectors with regards to . We then stack them side-by-side into a matrix.
So the matrix is
Use your matrix from (c) to rewrite the differential equation ( is a vector in )
as a matrix equation. Find all solutions of the matrix equation, then write them as elements of .
Using our answer to (b), the equation becomes the matrix equation with unknown vector ;
Using Gaussian elimination we get that
As there is no pivot in the third column of the matrix, the coefficient on is free. The pivots in columns two and one respectively say that the coefficient on is and the coefficient on is . So,
Where can be any real number.
Notice how this answer simplifies to just like we got for the answer to (b). We’ll see this later, how we get the same answer no matter the basis that we use.
Suppose that is a square matrix that is antisymmetric, meaning that
Prove that .
Properties of trace have that
But since this means that
which can only happen if .
The matrix exponential of a matrix is given by the Taylor series,
For , let be the matrix:
and let be the matrix:
Find a concise formula for , for any integer .
Since ,
Find a concise formula for .
Find , for any integer .
has no inverse, so is undefined for any negative .
is defined to be , and .
by an easy calculation, so for any , .
Find a concise formula for .
Most stuff is zero, so the answer is:
Find the determinant of the matrix
Is the determinant of a matrix a linear transformation into the real numbers ? Explain or give a counterexample.
No. There are many reasons, but one example is for the identity matrix . We know that but rather than . So cannot be a linear transformation.